- SHI CHI, ch. 65.
- He reigned from 514 to 496 B.C.
- SHI CHI, ch. 130.
- The appellation of Nang Wa.
- SHI CHI, ch. 31.
- SHI CHI, ch. 25.
- The appellation of Hu Yen, mentioned in ch. 39 under the year 637.
- Wang-tzu Ch`eng-fu, ch. 32, year 607.
- The mistake is natural enough. Native critics refer to a work of
the Han dynasty, which says: "Ten LI outside the WU gate [of the city of
Wu, now Soochow in Kiangsu] there is a great mound, raised to commemorate
the entertainment of Sun Wu of Ch`i, who excelled in the art of war, by the
King of Wu." -- "They attached strings to wood to make bows, and sharpened
wood to make arrows. The use of bows and arrows is to keep the Empire in
- The son and successor of Ho Lu. He was finally defeated and overthrown by Kou chien, King of Yueh, in 473 B.C. See post.
- King Yen of Hsu, a fabulous being, of whom Sun Hsing-yen says in his preface: "His humanity brought him to destruction."
- The passage I have put in brackets is omitted in the T`U SHU, and
may be an interpolation. It was known, however to Chang Shou-chieh of the
T`ang dynasty, and appears in the T`AI P`ING YU LAN.
- Ts`ao Kung seems to be thinking of the first part of chap. II, perhaps especially of ss. 8.
- See chap. XI.
- On the other hand, it is noteworthy that WU TZU, which is not in
6 chapters, has 48 assigned to it in the HAN CHIH. Likewise, the CHUNG
YUNG is credited with 49 chapters, though now only in one only. In the
case of very short works, one is tempte d to think that P`IEN might simply
- Yeh Shih of the Sung dynasty [1151-1223].
- He hardly deserves to be bracketed with assassins.
- See Chapter 7, ss. 27 and Chapter 11, ss. 28.
- See Chapter 11, ss. 28. Chuan Chu is the abbreviated form of his name.
- I.e. Po P`ei. See ante.
- The nucleus of this work is probably genuine, though large additions
have been made by later hands. Kuan chung died in 645 BC.
- See infra, beginning of INTRODUCTION.
- I do not know what this work, unless it be the last chapter of
another work. Why that chapter should be singled out, however, is not clear.
- About 480 B.C.
- That is, I suppose, the age of Wu Wang and Chou Kung.
- In the 3rd century BC.
- Ssu-ma Jang-chu, whose family name was T`ien, lived in the latter
half of the 6th century B.C., and is also believed to have written a work
on war. See SHIH CHI, ch. 64, and infra at the beginning of the INTRODUCTION.
- See Legge's Classics, vol. V, Prolegomena p. 27. Legge thinks
that the TSO CHUAN must have been written in the 5th century, but not before
- See MENCIUS III. 1. iii. 13-20.
- When Wu first appears in the CH`UN CH`IU in 584, it is already
at variance with its powerful neighbor. The CH`UN CH`IU first mentions Yueh
in 537, the TSO CHUAN in 601.
- This is explicitly stated in the TSO CHUAN, XXXII, 2.
- There is this to be said for the later period, that the feud would
tend to grow more bitter after each encounter, and thus more fully justify
the language used in XI. ss. 30.
- With Wu Yuan himself the case is just the reverse: -- a spurious
treatise on war has been fathered on him simply because he was a great general.
Here we have an obvious inducement to forgery. Sun Wu, on the other hand,
cannot have been widely known to fame in the 5th century.
- From TSO CHUAN: "From the date of King Chao's accession  there was no year in which Ch`u was not attacked by Wu."
- Preface ad fin: "My family comes from Lo-an, and we are really
descended from Sun Tzu. I am ashamed to say that I only read my ancestor's
work from a literary point of view, without comprehending the military technique.
So long have we been enjoyin g the blessings of peace!"
- Hoa-yin is about 14 miles from T`ung-kuan on the eastern border
of Shensi. The temple in question is still visited by those about the ascent
of the Western Sacred Mountain. It is mentioned in a text as being "situated
five LI east of the district ci ty of Hua-yin. The temple contains the Hua-shan
tablet inscribed by the T`ang Emperor Hsuan Tsung [713-755]."
- See my "Catalogue of Chinese Books" (Luzac & Co., 1908), no. 40.
- This is a discussion of 29 difficult passages in Sun Tzu.
- Cf. Catalogue of the library of Fan family at Ningpo: "His commentary
is frequently obscure; it furnishes a clue, but does not fully develop the
- WEN HSIEN T`UNG K`AO, ch. 221.
- It is interesting to note that M. Pelliot has recently discovered
chapters 1, 4 and 5 of this lost work in the "Grottos of the Thousand Buddhas."
See B.E.F.E.O., t. VIII, nos. 3-4, p. 525.
- The Hsia, the Shang and the Chou. Although the last-named was
nominally existent in Sun Tzu's day, it retained hardly a vestige of power,
and the old military organization had practically gone by the board. I can
suggest no other explanation of the passage.
- See CHOU LI, xxix. 6-10.
- T`UNG K`AO, ch. 221.
- This appears to be still extant. See Wylie's "Notes," p. 91 (new edition).
- T`UNG K`AO, loc. cit.
- A notable person in his day. His biography is given in the SAN KUO CHIH, ch. 10.
- See XI. ss. 58, note.
- HOU HAN SHU, ch. 17 ad init.
- SAN KUO CHIH, ch. 54.
- SUNG SHIH, ch. 365 ad init.
- The few Europeans who have yet had an opportunity of acquainting
themselves with Sun Tzu are not behindhand in their praise. In this connection,
I may perhaps be excused for quoting from a letter from Lord Roberts, to
whom the sheets of the present w ork were submitted previous to publication:
"Many of Sun Wu's maxims are perfectly applicable to the present day, and
no. 11 [in Chapter VIII] is one that the people of this country would do
well to take to heart."
- Ch.. 140.
- See IV. ss. 3.
- The allusion may be to Mencius VI. 2. ix. 2.
- The TSO CHUAN.
- SHIH CHI, ch. 25, fol. I.
- Cf. SHIH CHI, ch 47.
- See SHU CHING, preface ss. 55.
- See SHIH CHI, ch. 47.
- Lun Yu, XV. 1.
- I failed to trace this utterance.
- The other four being worship, mourning, entertainment of guests,
and festive rites. See SHU CHING, ii. 1. III. 8, and CHOU LI, IX. fol. 49.
- See XIII. ss. 11, note.
- This is a rather obscure allusion to the TSO CHUAN, where Tzu-ch`an
says: "If you have a piece of beautiful brocade, you will not employ a mere
learner to make it up."
- Cf. TAO TE CHING, ch. 31.
- Sun Hsing-yen might have quoted Confucius again. See LUN YU, XIII. 29, 30.
- Better known as Hsiang Yu [233-202 B.C.].
- SHIH CHI, ch. 47.
- SHIH CHI, ch. 38.
- See XIII. ss. 27, note. Further details on T`ai Kung will be found
in the SHIH CHI, ch. 32 ad init. Besides the tradition which makes him a
former minister of Chou Hsin, two other accounts of him are there given,
according to which he would appear t o have been first raised from a humble
private station by Wen Wang.
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